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牛津高中英語教材“Reading”板塊的整體教學初探
2016-01-06 信息來源: 張弓弼

牛津高中英語教材“Reading”板塊的整體教學初探

張柳娟

牛津高中英語教材閱讀(Reading)板塊,話題廣泛、內容豐富、語言純正、文化背景濃厚,是學生學習英語、了解文化、培養語言能力、拓展思維能力和提高綜合能力的主渠道,也是教材中每個單元的重要教學板塊。但在教學過程中如何科學合理地教學,避免把它變成單一的語法課、詞匯課、翻譯課、閱讀課,或者有時由于教學時間有限而把它變成支離破碎的片段集錦課,只匆匆瀏覽些表面的東西。其實,一篇好的“Reading”課文非常值得我們由淺入深地、由表及里地、由點到面地、有始有終地、完整徹底地去學習、品味、挖掘、鞏固、拓展其語言及內容及文化。

如何引領學生逐步開啟話題,引導學生激起學習興趣,指導學生掌握重點語言,激發學生卷入課堂活動,拓展學生知識視野挖掘學生內在潛能,促進學生延伸思考,使學生完整地領略文章的語言和思想,促進學生整體英語素質和學習能力。如何在處理“Reading板塊的時候,努力創建形成一個合理的、科學的、有效的從Pre-reading(閱讀前)到While-reading(閱讀中)再到Post-reading(閱讀后)這樣一個由淺入深、逐步深入、逐步拓展、完整有效的教學模式和知識體系,體現素質教育的教學思想,這是自我開始運用牛津教材以來一直在嘗試和探索的問題。

下面,我以“Oxford English SIA Unit 3---Places of Interest(名勝古跡)”為例, 談談我對牛津高中英語教材中閱讀(Reading)板塊的整體教學的探索嘗試。

I. 關于教材

“Places of Interest” is a reading passage of Unit 3 (A Taste of Travel) in senior book one of Oxford English, Shanghai Edition. The main topic of the passage is tourism in China. It consists of four short descriptions of some popular sites and places of interest for tourists to visit in China: The Great Wall, The Shanghai Museum, the Potala Palace and the Li River in Guilin.

II. 教學目標

1. 語言目標

To master the key language points and the content of the passage

(1) words and phrases: containitem, take shape, be preserved as, man-made structure, enjoy a superb view of, landscape, viewfascinate, reflection

(2) sentence patterns:

A. The Great Wall twists and turns along the tops of mountain chains in northern China.

B. The Shanghai Museum is a magnificent structure with a square base and a round top.

C. Take a boat trip, and you will be fascinated by the odd peaks along the river and their reflections in the clear water.

2. 能力目標-

To use various methods to develop students’ different language skills, and most importantly to engage the students in the integration of those skills. therefore, the students will acquire a rich and authentic usage of the English language.

3. 情感目標

To make full use of the teaching materials to arouse the students love for mother nature and our motherland. To make the students realize that all the magnificent places of interest of our country result from people’s diligence and intelligence. To educate the students to do their utmost in studies for our motherland.

III. 學法和教法

1. 學法“SQ3R”

The Method proposed for students is the Method of SQ3R: S: Survey Q: Question R1: Read R2: Recite R3: Review

The aim of learning is not only to become familiar with the materials provided by the teachers but also to learn the target language by seeking more relevant information. The essence of language learning is to fully develop the language skills. This method of SQ3R helps the students to achieve the aim and to acquire active and self-reliant learning.

2. 教法問題--情景,實踐--交流

The method proposed for teacher is the Method of “Situations & Activities; Practice & Communication”. The use of this method helps to obtain a learner-centered and content-centered approach, which is quite different from the usual spoon-feeding way of teaching. With the function of getting the students fully involved in class activities, this method proves useful for the acquisition of rich and authentic English.

IV. 教學設計

1. 讀前活動Pre-reading

(1) 引出問題和話題Start students thinking about the following question by brainstorming. Why do people travel to another country?

Elicit answers such as shopping, eating, sightseeing, visiting relatives or friends, emigration, education, excitement and adventures, relaxation and pleasure, business….

(2) 引出興趣Tell the students that, among the top ten tourist destinations, China is the 5th most popular in the world, with up to a hundred million tourists within the country and from abroad every year.

(This information stimulates students’ enthusiasm for their country, and their eagerness to learn about and to investigate places of interest in China.)

(這一活動不僅要喚起學生興趣,而且激勵學生對祖國的熱愛,激發他們了解和探索祖國名勝古跡的渴望。)

(3) 熱身學生Ask students to make a list of places tourists might visit in China.

(4) 啟動學生Ask students what attractions these listed places have and invite them to discuss their opinions.

(5) 閱讀準備Hand out some publicity materials which China Tourist Association produces and present some landscape paintings downloaded from the Internet.

(6) 略讀獲取主旨意思Ask students to skim the passage.

l What’s the main topic of the passage?

l How many places are mentioned in the passage?

l What are the names of the places?

(7) 查讀獲取特定信息Ask students to scan the passage. Scan Places of Interest and find information to complete the table below. Match the name of each place with the number and a related picture shown in the passage.

Place

Number

Picture

The Potala Palace

(paragraph)3

D

The Great Wall

1

C

The Li River

4

A

The Shanghai Museum

2

B

( The purpose of this phase serves as a warmer or a text orientation.)

(上面幾個閱讀前(Pre-reading)的導入準備活動起到學習熱身和熟悉課文的作用,同時引起學生學習興趣,啟動學生初步了解并進入閱讀主題,為接下來的While-reading作準備和鋪墊。)

2. 讀中活動 While-reading

(1) 細讀獲取整體理解

Ask students to read the whole passage intensively and comprehensively and get the synopsis of each paragraph:

P1: The Great Wall, one of the greatest wonders in the world

P2: Shanghai Museum, a magnificent structure with large collections of ancient Chinese items

P3: Potala Palace, a palace of Tibetan Buddhism and Tibetan Civilization

P4: Guilin, a wonderland with unique landscapes

(2) 梳理關鍵語言點

A. 關鍵單詞和詞組

take shape= take on a definite form

Completely new relations between teachers and students are taking shape in our school.

contain:

Sea water contains salt.

The garden contains a large collection of living examples of plants that grow in the local area.

item:

news items/ an important item on the agenda/ historical items from the Tibetan civilization

preserve= keep from harm or damage

The old house was preserved as a museum.

Ancient Egyptians knew of means to preserve dead bodies from decay.

admit:

Joanne admitted feeling hurt by what I had said.

We have to admit that the original plan is not really practical.

Only ticket- holders will be admitted into the stadium.

view:

There’s no view from my hotel bedroom window.

May I have your views on those terrorist incidents?

landscape= a wide view of country scenery

They stood at the top of the mountain and viewed the beautiful landscape.

The two hills with the valley formed a beautiful landscape.

fascinate= attract or interest somebody greatly

Children are often fascinated by the toys in the shop window.

fascination: Old castles have a certain strange fascination for me.

reflect= throw back light, heat, sound etc.; produce, show

The sidewalks reflect heat on a hot day.

The novel reflects the life-style and customs of the people in the remote mountain areas.

reflection: The reflection of the moon in the still water produces a superb view.

B. 關鍵句型

The Great Wall twists and turns along the tops of mountain chains in northern China.

The Shanghai Museum is a magnificent structure with a square base and a round top.

Take a boat trip, and you will be fascinated by the odd peaks along the river and their reflections in the clear water.

(3) 討論、交流

Ask students to work in groups and to exchange views on the passage. Teacher monitors each group during the course.

(4) 暢談(對祖國美麗山河的)感想

Encourage students to voice their feelings when learning the passage about the stunning beauty of our country.

(5) 情景交流、實際運用

Students brainstorm in small groups to prepare for conversations in a tourist agency. Teacher acts as an advisor, orienting and guiding the students. Students then perform their creations in the front of the classroom.

(The purpose of While-reading is to create an information gap for the students as well as to motivate them and get all the students participating in using the target language.)

(這部分讀中活動(While-reading)是要為學生創造一個信息鴻溝,同時激勵所有學生參與卷入使用目標語言的課堂活動,加強問題情景,實踐交流獲取知識,獲取信息。)

3. 讀后活動 Post-reading

(1) 拓展閱讀國外的一些名勝古跡

Students do the supplementary reading in the “MORE READING” section which is at the end of Unit 3 (A Taste of Travel). The supplementary reading contains information about places of interest in other countries: Angkor Wat in Cambodia, the Colosseum in Italy and the Great Pyramids of Giza in Egypt.

(Doing the supplementary reading will help students broaden their worldview and discover more about foreign cultures.)

(2) 學生課后自主查找挖掘更多有關旅游和名勝古跡的資料和信息Students are asked to use a large variety of mediums e.g. books, magazines, leaflets, tourist brochures, advertisements, pictures, Internet to find more information on tourism and places of interest.

Teacher can provides the students with some reference websites:

http://www.cnta.gov.cn/index.asp

http://www.chinatour.com/data/data.htm

http://badaling.gov.cn

http://www.shanghaimuseum.net/cn/index.asp

http://www.visitguilin.com

http://www.columbusguides.com

http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/

(3) 角色扮演游客和導游

Students work in groups, performing roles of tourists and tour guides, the tourists express their travel requirements and travel plans while the tour guides work in groups to make advertisements for the four scenic spots in the READING section and in the MORE READING section or to make advertisements for other tourist attractions that they prefer, in order to make recommendations for those “tourists”.

( The purpose of this activity is to consolidate what has been read and to create a chance for the students to broaden their minds.)

(學生通過角色扮演游客和導游,運用目標語言去介紹推廣旅游產品,得以鞏固所讀東西,鍛煉了目標英語,拓寬了思維和視野。)

(4) 介紹分享自己難忘的旅游經歷

Students introduce to the whole class an impressive vacation or journey by showing photos or by means of other multimedia.

(5) 闡述話題,表達觀點

Students give their own opinions on the topic: Do you think travelling makes you open minded? If so, in what ways has travelling broadened your mind?

(6) 分組做有關旅游的課程項目

Students work in several groups to do a project on tourism. In the project, students devise a questionnaire and then use it to get results which are interpreted and written up as a report. The project can be organized in the following way:

l Students are told they are going to work in groups to write a report and present the report about tourism based on a questionnaire they will later orally design.

l Teacher discusses with the class what kind of information they might want to obtain and the kind of questions they would use to get it. The following areas are possible options: popularity of tours, reasons for (not) travelling, most / least popular tourist places, knowledge about the places of interest……

l The groups write their different questionnaires. The teacher can act as a resource or a prompter.

l The groups then administrate their questionnaires. Students may use target or non-target language to get the results they want.

l The groups study the collected information and then write a report in which they reach conclusions about the results of their investigations. Then each group presents the report orally. Reports can be compared. By way of follow-up, groups can read other groups’ work and discuss the similarities and differences with their own.

(The purpose of doing this project is to provide students an opportunity to communicate in various situations. In addition, the oral reports offer students the challenge of drafting and perfecting their report by striving for accuracy so that the aim of the acquisition of authentic language can be achieved.)

(The purpose of Post-reading is to expose students to more extensive reading and more free thinking through interactive and collaborative work, and to facilitate students’ potentials and overall language proficiency.)

“讀后活動”(Post-reading)牛津高中英語教材閱讀(Reading)部分教學設計中的一個不可忽視的環節,應受到十分重視,它是在課內學習基礎上的再發揮、再積累、再延伸,再拓展、再思考、再創造的過程。要是沒有這一環節,課文學習也就缺少了深度,廣度,高度,更缺少了學習的完整性, 學生的語言綜合運用能力、思考能力、和思想表達能力以及其他綜合素質能力也將受到限制,我們的教學也就缺乏逐步深入、逐步拓展、完整有效這一目的。

總之,在牛津高中英語教材閱讀(Reading板塊的教學中,要注重教學設計和教學過程的完整性。要尤其重視Pre-reading Post-reading環節,缺乏 Pre-reading Post-reading就失去了對教材的深度、意義、優美和內涵的挖掘,學生也就失去了學習語言和文化和開發潛能表達思想的好機會。 因此,在牛津高中英語教材閱讀(Reading板塊的教學中,從引出話題,激起興趣,啟動學生開始,到最后的拓展閱讀,表達觀點,參與課程項目,達到一個循序前進的一個完整過程,并運用問題--情景,實踐--交流” SQ3R這一教學理念,創造機會使學生的英語聽說讀寫綜合能力(Integrated Skills)得到鍛煉,并有機會運用目標語言表達思想和想法。總之,在牛津高中英語教材閱讀(Reading板塊的教學中要有合理整體的設計、目標和思路。注重Pre-reading過程中的引導和興趣,注重While-reading過程中的知識習得和語言運用,注重Post-reading過程中的鞏固拓展和再創造再升華,使牛津高中英語教材“Reading”板塊的教學達到完整、有效和難忘。

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